A public address system (PA system) is an electronic sound amplification and distribution system with a microphone, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a large public, for example for announcements of movements at large and noisy air and rail terminals or at a sports stadium. The term is also used for systems which may additionally have a mixing console, and amplifiers and loudspeakers suitable for music as well as speech, used to reinforce a sound source, such as recorded music or a person giving a speech or distributing the sound throughout a venue or building.
Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations. Intercom systems, installed in many buildings, have microphones in many rooms allowing the occupants to respond to announcements.
Public address systems consist of input sources, amplifiers, control and monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. The primary input sources are microphones for live announcements and a source of recorded sound. There may be a system which allows operators, or automated equipment, to select from a number of standard pre-recorded messages. These input sources are fed into preamplifiers and signal routers that determine the zones to which the audio signal is fed. The preamplifier signals are then passed into the amplifiers. Depending on local practices these amplifiers will usually amplify the audio signals to 50V, 70V or 100V speaker line level. Control equipment monitors the amplifiers and speaker lines for faults before it reaches the loudspeakers. This control equipment is also used for separating zones in a PA system. The loudspeaker is used to convert electrical signals into sound.